The defense community in Maryland is an R&D powerhouse.
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A fuel cell comprising an anode chamber, a cathode chamber, and a nanoporous membrane between the anode chamber and the cathode chamber, wherein the nanoporous membrane sequesters and isolates a microbe in the anode chamber. The nanoporous membrane allows nutrients to flow actively or passively from the cathode chamber to the anode chamber and can be modified by a thin film composite (TFC) to create a TFC nanofiltration membrane. The nanoporous membrane can have a pore size from about 100 nm to about 1000 nm. A method of making a fuel cell comprising configuring a nanoporous membrane between an anode chamber and a cathode chamber wherein the nanoporous membrane sequesters and isolates a microbe in the anode chamber and can be used to protect the cathode chamber.