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Embodiments include systems and methods of estimating at least one state of a modeled dynamic system. In particular, in one embodiment, an observer such as an extended Kalman filter is used to estimate the state of a modeled dynamic system. A covariance matrix associated with state variables of the observer is periodically checked for compliance with a specified condition, e.g., positive definiteness. If the matrix deviates from the specified condition, the matrix is set to a specified value.