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A quantitative fit test (QNFT) system and method for assessing the biological fit factor (FF) performance of respiratory protective devices. The biological QNFT system includes the following three main elements: an aerosol generation system; an exposure chamber; and an aerosol sampling subsystem. The aerosol sampling subsystem includes an aerosol spectrometer that counts particles in discrete size units ranging from 0.5 to 20 micrometers (μm) making it possible to obtain several size-specific FF measurements from a single respirator fit test. A virtual impactor in the aerosol generation system increases the number of challenge particles in the primary target size of interest (1 to 5 μm) and increases the sensitivity of the method allowing FF values of up to one million to be measured without the need to correct for in-mask background particles.